Glossary of Common Terms

 

A compendium of commonly used terms relating to batteries, chargers and flashlights.

 

0 Voltage Jump Start

  • Discharged batteries normally have some residual voltage. Others have no voltage at all. Many chargers on the market today cannot recharge these dead batteries once they reach the 0 voltage condition. Using Camelion technology the charger can charge these dead batteries, bringing them back to life.

 

6 Level Protection

  • To ensure the safety of its products Camelion employs the most advanced microprocessor technology. 6 Level protection uses multiple levels of built-in safety protection to help ensure safe operation of your Camelion charger. These include 6 out of the following key features: -dv cut off, Timer Control, Over-Temperature Protection, Reverse Polarity Protection, Over-current Control, Defective and Non-rechargeable battery detection, Short-circuit Protection.

 

AA

  • AA Size Battery, a common battery size indicator

 

AAA

  • AAA Size Battery, a common battery size indicator

 

Alkaline

  • Chemical used in batteries, primarily in the anode

 

Alloy

  • a chemical compound of two or more metals

 

Ampere

  • a measure of electric current

 

Anode

  • the positive (+) terminal of a battery. The anode typically contains a deficit of electrons. When connected to the cathode an electric current forms.

 

Battery Leakage

  • Batteries will sometimes corrode and leak electrolytic fluid. This may occur when batteries are unused for a long time or are used in the wrong devices. In such cases the battery should be discarded.

 

Capacity

  • The total number of ampere-hours or watt-hours that can be withdrawn from a fully charged cell or battery under specified conditions of discharge.

 

Cathode

  • The negative terminal of a battery, which contains a large quantity of electrons. Together with the anode, this is a basic building block of a battery. During discharge, the positive electrode of the cell is the cathode. During charging in a rechargeable battery, the negative electrode is the cathode.

 

Charger

  • An electronic device that recharges the rechargeable. Many manufacturers produce chargers for their rechargeable batteries.

 

Charging Current

  • The current used to charge up a rechargeable battery.

 

Charging Cycle

  • The complete process of charging up a rechargeable battery. When a rechargeable battery's capacity has been depleted, it should be inserted into a charger for a certain period of time. The charger provides a charging current that restores the capacity to the battery so it can be used again. This process is called the charging cycle. Some rechargeable batteries can support up to 1000 charges or charging cycles.

 

Charging Time

  • The period of time it takes for charger to charge up rechargeable battery.

 

Chemistry

  • The chemical composition or arrangement of a material or substance.

 

-dv Control

  • This is a precise termination that tracks the rates of change of battery voltage (dv/dt). The charger varies the voltage change in proportion to the time taken by the current. This allows optimal charging by eliminating the overcharging and compromise of traditional fixed charge timers. The battery stops charging when the battery is fully charged and enters float charging mode.

 

Discharge Curve

  • During battery discharge, a measure of the decrease in capacity charted against time

 

Electric Current

  • A flow of electrons between an anode and a cathode.

 

Electric Device

  • A device such as a digital camera, MP3 player that uses electric energy to operate.

 

Electron

  • A negatively charged component of an atom.

 

Fast Charge

  • The ability of a charger to charge a rechargeable battery in a few hours or less.

 

High Drain Device

  • A device that requires a high discharge current, such as a digital camera flash or toy racing car

 

Independent Charging Channels

  • Such charging channels allow simultaneous charging of different type batteries.

 

Lead Acid

  • A type of chemical used in lead-acid batteries, typically vehicles.

 

Low Current Leakage

  • Normally if the battery charger is not connected to input power and the batteries are left in the charger, the batteries will discharge. To minimize loss of charge, a charger should discharge the batteries using the lowest possible current.

 

Low Drain Device

  • A device that requires a low discharge current , such as a wrist watch, lamp or remote control.

 

MAh

  • milli ampere hours, a measure of current flowed within an hour

 

Mains Voltage

  • the household voltage, typically 110-120 or 220-240 V AC

 

Memory Effect

  • A phenomenon in which a cell or battery operated in successive cycles to the same, but less than full, depth of discharge temporarily loses the rest of its capacity at normal voltage levels.

 

Mercury

  • A metal used in many older batteries, considered toxic and environmentally harmful.

 

Nickel Cadmium

  • A common chemical compound used in rechargeable batteries,considered toxic and environmentally harmful.

 

Nickel Metal Hydride (Ni-MH)

  • A common chemical compound used in rechargeable batteries

 

Operating Voltage

  • The actual voltage of a batetry while it is being used (discharged)

 

Over-current Protection

  • The adapter ensures the charging current is within the specifications of the power regulation circuits within the equipment, preventing equipment damage or safety hazards.

 

Over-temperature Protection

  • If the internal case temperature rises to an unusually high level then the system will shut down. When the temperature has settled to a safe level the full charge current will be available. The cut-off temperature depends on the model e.g. 57C for the Camelion Easy to Use F60 charger

 

Recharge Cycles

  • The number of times a battery can be recharged

 

Rechargeable Battery

  • A battery that can be recharged by using a charger, Typically batteries can be recharged 500-1000 times under normal conditions.

 

Reverse Polarity Protection

  • Prevents damage to the charger if the battery is connected in reverse. The charger automatically detects if battery is inserted improperly i.e. positive is put against the negative plate and vice versa.

 

Self-Discharge

  • The loss of useful capacity of a battery on storage due to internal chemical action (local action).

 

Shelf Life

  • The duration of storage under specified conditions at the end of which the battery still retains the ability to give a specified performance.

 

Short-Circuit Protection

  • Prevents damage to the charger if the dc output is short-circuited.

 

Single Use Battery

  • A type of battery that cannot be recharged and must be disposed of once the charge that has been fully used.

 

Special Disposal

  • Proper disposal of batteries so as not to harm the environment. All batteries should be disposed and recycled properly. Heavy lead based batteries have toxic materials and should be disposed of in accordance with appropriate environmental regulations.

 

Storage Life

  • The maximum length of time a battery can be stored without losing most of its capacity.

 

Time-out Control

  • The charger has a timer that turns off the charger after a specified period of time. E.g. for the Easy to Use F60 charger the automatic cut-off is at 1.25 hours.

 

Trickle Charge Current

  • After batteries are fully charged, there will still be a small current applied to batteries to keep the charged 'topped up'. When the charger is connected to power, the trickle charge fully maintains charge even after fully charged.

 

Voltage Jump Start(TM)

  • Discharged batteries normally have some residual voltage. Others have no voltage at all. Many chargers on the market today cannot recharge these dead batteries once they reach this 0 voltage condition. Using newly developed technology, select Camelion chargers can charge up these dead batteries, bringing them back to life.

 

Wattage

  • A measure of electric power, typically expressed in watts or kilowatts.

 

Zinc Alkaline Battery

  • Uses zinc as the cathode, a potassium hydroxide electrolyte and manganese dioxide as the anode. Camelion Plus and Ultra alkaline batteries are zinc alkaline batteries.

 

Zinc Carbon Battery

  • Uses zinc as the cathode, a zinc chloride electrolyte and manganese dioxide as the anode. Camelion Super Heavy Duty batteries are zinc carbon batteries.